The traditions of Judaism arose around 2000 B.C., but it was not until 1 A.D. that the rabbinic religion was established. The faith was historically centered around Canaan (modern day Israel and Palestine).
According to the Jewish tradition itself, whose history is told in the Old Testament, rabbinic Judaism began with Moses and his receipt of God's Ten Commandments.
At the height of the Jewish people's power, their religion was centered around King Solomon's Temple and, more specifically, the Ark of the Covenant that it housed. This mighty kingdom collapsed in circa 920 B.C., giving rise to the Jewish diaspora and the rise of the prophets.