Known as the "Father of Empiricism," Francis Bacon established the Baconian method to investigate natural science. His approach led to the development of the scientific method, which is still used.
Although Francis Bacon technically did not discover anything, his choice to use inductive reasoning made him an important figure in history. He sought an approach different from deductive reasoning, which was the approach favored by scientists before his method. Bacon would observe a phenomenon before coming up with a hypothesis. He would then speculate about the subject, experiment on it and eventually analyze the data he accumulated. He believed in keeping religion separate from science, and other English scientists eventually followed his approach to research.