Although the debate continues regarding which has the greater effect on human behavior, it is generally accepted that the contributing factors of both nature (innate traits) and nurture (acquired traits) account for the wide variety of personalities, career paths and emotional characteristics among individuals in a society. The mid-20th century saw a shift away from the role played by genetics, or the "nature" factor, in personality development as researchers began to lean more towards the role played by an individual's interaction with their environment, or the "nurture" factor. By the latter part of the 20th century, the more influential focus was no longer centered around behavior developing independently of environment and viewed instead as an interactive process involving inherited traits, upbringing, peer experiences, random environmental events, media and socioeconomic status.Continue Reading
Research appears to show that a trait such as an individual's IQ level, commonly assumed to be an inherited trait, can be subject to alteration by the influence of family environmental factors. Culture is also a factor in the development of behavioral traits because of its generation-to-generation transmission of accepted social norms and parameters.
The 20th-century developmental psychologist, Erik Erikson, proposed that individuals develop their personalities, learning abilities and social skills by progressing through a series of eight interactive stages beginning in early childhood and ending in the years between 50 and 70. At each stage, the developing individual encounters various types of environmental crises, and by successfully overcoming each specific crisis, moves on the next stage in the developmental sequence.Learn more about Psychology
The term social expectations refers to the general standards of behavior that individuals who live within a society are expected to uphold. Good manners and common sense are standard examples of universal social expectations, although specific social behaviors differ from one culture to the next.Full Answer >
Voluntary behavior refers to thoughts and actions aimed at or resulting from choice in nature by individuals. The opposite behavior is called reflexive or involuntary behavior. As of 2014, the existence and nature of voluntary behavior is a matter of some debate amongst neuroscientists, psychiatrists and psychologists.Full Answer >
According to Richie Holterman for The Open Mind, believers in the New Age concept of indigo adults and children generally tend to characterize these individuals as extremely emotional beings who struggle with the acceptance of societal structures such as politics, education, medicine and law. These people have a tendency to create private lives for themselves and exist in a world of fantasy. They are thought to be very intuitive.Full Answer >
How effective and helpful group therapy is depends on a number of factors (such as the nature and severity of the problem a person may be facing), but disadvantages can include personality clashes in the group, causing individuals to feel uncomfortable, or feelings of rejection from individuals when trying to relate to the therapist. In general, patients with severe conditions that hamper everyday social interaction are not suited to group therapy.Full Answer >