Many conditions can cause the development of nodules in the thyroid gland, including iodine deficiency, overgrowth of thyroid tissue, cysts, inflammation of the thyroid and the development of a goiter, according to Mayo Clinic. Thyroid cancer can also cause thyroid nodules to develop.
Treatment for thyroid nodules depends on the nodule type, according to the Cleveland Clinic. No treatment is necessary for some nodules, although they should be monitored to note any changes. Thyroid hormone suppression therapy with a thyroid hormone medication is sometimes used to treat nodules. Radioactive iodine may be recommended for certain nodules, while surgery to remove the nodules is an option that is usually reserved for nodules that can't be labeled malignant or benign without surgical removal.