Contemporary research in personality theory generally focuses on the five-factor model, which offers a list of five major personality traits: openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and extroversion. High levels of neuroticism and its subtraits are considered maladaptive, whereas low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness and their subtraits are also considered maladaptive, according to a National Institute of Health study.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information argues that the five-factor model, abbreviated as FFM, is an extremely useful tool in the study of personality psychology. People who possess high levels of neuroticism subtraits may often experience negative emotions such as anxiety, depression or hostility. Those who score low on conscientiousness and agreeableness may be untrustworthy, unkind, unhelpful, disorderly or impulsive.
The American Psychological Association cites a study by Whitney Gore and Thomas Widiger that claims characteristics such as negative affectivity, antagonism, detachment, disinhibition and psychoticism align with traits present in the FFM. Negative affectivity aligns with high levels of neuroticism, while detachment aligns with introversion. Antagonism aligns with low levels of agreeableness, and disinhibition aligns with low levels of conscientiousness. Meanwhile, psychoticism aligns with high levels of openness. Openness to experience is often seen as a positive trait when psychoticism is not present.