The novel "Animal Farm" is an allegory for the Russian Revolution. Mr. Jones, the farmer against whom the animals rebel, represents the Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II. The animals who rebel represent the Russian people.
Each animal represents a single person or groups of people who took part in and were affected by the Russian Revolution. Napoleon, the pig who leads the revolution against men, represents Joseph Stalin. Stalin's actions are mirrored by Napoleon. For example, Stalin starved an estimated 4 to 10 million Ukrainian farmers for resisting collectivism. The character Napoleon starved to death nine hens who resisted his command to surrender their eggs.