Electrons undergo motion due to the effect of electrical and magnetic fields, or thermal energy. The motion of electrons under the effects of thermal kinetic energy lends them thermal velocity, whereas the motion of elec... More »

The Austin Community College electron transport page explains that as electrons travel down the transport chain, the electrons are transferred between protein complexes and lose energy that is used to pump protons across... More »

Every atom is made up of a nucleus surrounded by electrons that orbit the nucleus. Electrons orbit the nucleus because they are attracted to the protons inside of the nucleus while simultaneously repelled by the other el... More »

An excited state electron configuration refers to an atom with electrons at a higher energy level than is necessary. An excited state differs from a ground state, which is when all of the atom's electrons are in the thei... More »

The element calcium has a total of four energy levels that each can hold a certain number of electrons. Its first and fourth energy levels hold two electrons each, and its second and third energy levels hold eight electr... More »

An atom is in a ground state when all of the electrons in an atom are at their lowest energy levels. In an excited state, electrons spread out to higher energy levels, and not all are in their lowest levels. More »

The Bohr model for nitrogen has a central nucleus with seven neutrons and seven protons, a first energy ring with two electrons and a second energy ring with five electrons. A more detailed version shows two electrons in... More »