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www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/primary-types.aspx

The laws governing state primaries are complex and nuanced to say the least, and state primary laws have been a cause of confusion among voters and election administrators alike.The manner in which party primary elections are conducted varies widely from state to state.

ballotpedia.org/Closed_primary

In 14 states, at least one political party conducts closed primaries for congressional and state-level offices. In 11 of these states, all political parties conduct closed primaries. In the 2016 presidential election cycle, political parties in 27 states utilized closed primaries and/or caucuses as ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed_primary

Depending on the state, independents either make their choice of party primary privately, inside the voting booth, or publicly, by registering with any party on Election Day. 12 states — Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Utah, and West Virginia — have semi-closed primaries ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_primaries_in_the_United_States

In Hawaii, primary voter turnout fell from 74.6% in 1978 to 42.2% in 2006 after changing to open primaries which could be the result of many things—not just the move towards the open primary system. The closed primary system had more of an incentive for people to join one of the major parties.

www.theclassroom.com/what-states-have-closed-primaries-in...

Closed primaries allow the political parties to act as gatekeepers, limiting who may participate in the selection of nominees. The website FairVote.org reports that, as of 2010, 19 states and the District of Columbia hold closed primaries, though three of these states have a closed primary with special provisions.

classroom.synonym.com/states-use-open-primary-election...

Some states allow political parties to determine whether non-registered voters can vote in their primary elections. As a result, some states contain hybrid primaries, where one party may hold an open election and the other a closed.

www.investmentwatchblog.com/list-of-closed-primary-states...

There are 21 states that have a mixed primary system, including: Alaska: Parties decide who may vote in their primary election.The Alaska Democratic Party, AlaskaLibertarian Party and Alaskan Independence Party allow any registered voters. The Alaska Republican Party allows only registered Republicans, nonpartisan or undeclared voters.; Arizona: The primary is considered semi-closed.

www.diffen.com/difference/Caucus_vs_Primary

The electoral process to nominate a candidate for a presidential election is usually called "the primaries," but there are two different systems that states use: caucus and primary.. Unlike a primary, where residents simply cast their ballots, a caucus is a local gathering where voters openly decide which candidate to support.

www.fairvote.org/primaries

Open primaries, closed primaries, semi-closed primaries, top-two primaries, and jungle primaries are used in different states across the USA. The Republican and Democratic parties use open and closed caucuses in some of the states to elect their Presidential nominee, and open, closed, or semi-closed primaries to elect their nominee in others.

www.fairvote.org/open_and_closed_primaries

A handful of states even allow voters registered with one party to switch their registration at the polls to vote in another party's primary. In these rare instances, a closed primary can more closely resemble open or semi-closed primaries than the closed primaries of other states.