Most atomic nuclei in the universe are stable. This means the number of protons in a stable atom's nucleus remains constant indefinitely. Consequently, a stable atom retains its elemental identity regardless of any envir... More » Science Physics Particle Physics

There are currently 24 man-made, or synthetic, elements. Examples include curium, einsteinium and bohrium. Additionally there are a further 9 elements, that while present on earth in trace amounts, are usually synthesize... More »

Synthetic elements are made by adding protons or neutrons to existing elements. A beam of subatomic particles is fired at an atom of an existing radioactive element. When this atom captures an extra proton, or captures a... More »

Nuclear force is the force that holds the particles of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons, together. It is a fundamental force able to overcome the electric force that would otherwise force the nucleus apart within extr... More »

String theory helps human beings understand the nature of the universe and how it works. There are no practical applications for string theory, as of 2014. More » Science Physics Particle Physics

String theory involves the view of the manifestation of all fundamental particles in the universe and the configuration of the fundamental strings. A string is regarded as a one-dimensional filament of energy and is thou... More »

The electron sea model explains how metallic elements bond to each other. The valence electrons of each element are delocalized and are free to move around the fixed proton centers as if they were floating in a sea of el... More »