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eesc.columbia.edu/courses/ees/climate/lectures/o_strat.html

These are due to the movement of seawater in the horizontal (ocean currents) and vertical (upwelling/sinking) directions. Temperature and density of ocean water are related inversely: warm water means low density, cold water means denser seawater. The salt content of the water also affects Ocean density.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratification_(water)

Stratification may be upset by turbulence. This creates mixed layers of water. Forms of turbulence may include wind-sea surface friction, upwelling and downwelling. Marshall et al. (2002) suggest that baroclinic eddies (baroclinity) may be an important factor in maintaining stratification.

xtide.ldeo.columbia.edu/mpa/Clim-Wat/Climate/lectures/ocean

Ocean Stratification. The ocean composes 70.8% of the earth's surface. Sea water fills the basins separating the continents with an average depth of 3795 meters.The transition from the continental to the deep ocean or continental margins extend from the sea shore to around 2500 meters depth, it covers 40.7% of the ocean (29% of Earth surface).

climatechangeandoceanstratification.blogspot.com/p/climate...

Natural stratification of the ocean column occurs as pictured below. With natural stratification a vertical water column is formed due to the varying densities of the ocean water- will less dense water towards the surface of the ocean and more dense water towards deeper ocean (centerforoceansolutions) The varying dense layers of the water are able to mix through wind upwelling and down-welling.

encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Stratification+of+Water

Stratification of Water The vertical distribution of water density in bodies of fresh or salt water is known as stratification and is characterized by the vertical density gradient. The greater the increase in density with depth and the greater the vertical gradient, the higher the stability of the stratification. When the vertical density gradient is ...

www.answers.com/Q/What_is_vertical_stratification_in...

What is vertical stratification in aquatic biomes? ... Social stratification describes ones place within a given group,category region or any unit of societal measure. ... It is like an ocean but ...

www.ritubiology.com/2016/07/16/aquatic-microbiology-viii...

Includes water column above the deep parts of the ocean away from land. The upper layer of water is sunlit and warm while the lower layer is characterized by darkness and tremendous pressure. Horizontal zones of the ocean Ocean stratification. The ocean forms different layers as the water has different density throughout.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_stratification

With severe thermal stratification in a lake, the quality of drinking water also can be adversely affected. For fisheries managers, the spatial distribution of fish within a lake is often adversely affected by thermal stratification and in some cases may indirectly cause large die-offs of recreationally important fish.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fqOtgG6vik

Credits to an unknown friend of Marcel Babin, Université Laval.

oceanmotion.org/html/background/ocean-vertical-structure.htm

The ocean's pycnocline is very stable thus suppressing mixing between the mixed layer and deep layer; that is, the pycnocline acts as a barrier to vertical motion within the ocean. The concept of stability is useful in understanding this property of the pycnocline. Stability as used here refers