There are four main types of chromosomes: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric, and telocentric. Chromosomes are found within the nucleus of most living cells and consist of DNA that is tightly wound into thread-like structures. Additional protein structures called histones support the DNA molecule within the chromosome.
Human chromosomes. Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain genetic traits are linked to a person's sex and are passed on through the sex chromosomes. The autosomes contain the rest of the genetic hereditary information.
Chromosomes are highly dispersed and difficult to locate before cell division. When the cell begins to divide, the chromosomes are seen clearly and can be photographed as well as their morphology, size and shape can be studied. The chromosome types are divided into two categories, autosomes and sex chromosome. These types are explained below:
Genetics Home Reference provides information about each human chromosome written in lay language.. The University of Utah's Genetic Science Learning Center discusses how karyotypes can be used in diagnosing genetic disorders.. Arizona State University's "Ask a Biologist" discusses the inheritance of human chromosomes.
Besides the linear chromosomes found in the nucleus, the cells of humans and other complex organisms carry a much smaller type of chromosome similar to those seen in bacteria. This circular chromosome is found in mitochondria, which are structures located outside the nucleus that serve as the cell's powerhouses.
In human beings, there are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes (also known as sex chromosomes). There are 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of allosomes in our genome (and thus in our ...
ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the five types of chromosomes. The types are:- 1. Eukaryotic Chromosomes 2. Bacterial Chromosomes 3. Viral Chromosomes 4. Giant Chromosomes and 5. Polytene Chromosomes. Chromosome Type # 1. Eukaryotic Chromosomes: In 1879 Flemming used the word chromatin for the rod like bodies in the nucleus and Waldeyer coined the term […]
Each human cell thus contains 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. The gametes or ovum produced by the female ovaries and the sperm produced by the male testicles, however, contain only 23 chromosomes.
Chromosomes which axe retained in both germ line cells as well somatic cells are referred to as S-chromosome. Those which are lost or eliminated from the somatic cells but Eire retained in germ cell are known as eliminated chromosome or E-chromosome. (g) Special Type of Chromosomes/Giant Chromosomes:
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. These are usually treated separately as the nuclear genome, and the mitochondrial genome.