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Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms. The liver’s primary mechanism for metabolizing drugs is via a specific group of cytochrome P-450 enzymes.


The drug classes most responsible for these adverse drug events are blood thinners, antibiotics, diabetes drugs, and opioid analgesics. In an era of opioid addiction and overdose, medication metabolism may be critical to understanding appropriate dosing of opioids and other medications.


Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. More generally, xenobiotic metabolism (from the Greek xenos "stranger" and biotic "related to living beings") is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics, which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal biochemist...


Some types of inhibition •Competition between substrates for enzyme active site Concentration of substrates Affinity for binding site (drug with hi affinity for an enzyme will slow the metabolism of any low affinity drug) •Irreversible inactivation of enzyme Complex with heme iron of CYP450 (cimetidine, ketoconazole)


Pathways of Drug Metabolism - Module 3, Session 1 with Dr. Sanford P. Markey This is Module 3, Session 1, of the NIH Clinical Center's "Principles of Clinica...


Two types of enzymes are involved in metabolism: Phase I Metabolism. These enzymes modify the drug chemically by processes such as oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis or by the removal and addition of an active group. Phase II Metabolism


Impaired metabolism of drugs due to genetically based dysfunction of competent enzymes may lead to manifestation of toxic effects of clinically used drugs. Moreover, it is evident that genetic polymorphisms in these enzymes are responsible for the developement of a number of neurological disorders or cancers.


Overview: Phase I metabolism . oxidation (via cytochrome P450), reduction, and hydrolysis reactions ; phase I reactions convert a parent drug to more polar (water soluble) active metabolites by unmasking or inserting a polar functional group (-OH, -SH, -NH2) geriatric patients have decreased phase I metabolism


tion, metabolism, and excretion. ... analyzed in order to understand the behavior of a specific drug in the body. This type of phar-macokinetic data, collected from average adults, is the basis for determining dose, dosing in-tervals, and limitations on the safe use of a drug. However, it is important for the technician


The process of drug metabolism is accomplished in the _____, the principal organ of metabolism. ... (A port is a rubber stopper in the intravenous tubing, not a type of intravenous drug administration.) Oral drugs that are in a liquid form do NOT go through which of the following steps? disintegration (liquid does not need to disintegrate) ...