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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topsoil

Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top 5 inches (13 cm) to 10 inches (25 cm). It has the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms and is where most of the Earth's biological soil activity occurs. Topsoil is composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, and air.

www.doityourself.com/stry/topsoil-facts-what-its-made-of

Topsoil is best used in your yard to allow nature to do the heavy-lifting for you. In other words, a high-quality topsoil composition is what you need to encourage healthy growth for plants, trees, vegetables, fruits, and shrubbery. Topsoil can also prevent weeds and pests from infecting your plants.

study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-topsoil-definition-composition-uses.html

Topsoil, classified as the A or the O horizon of soil, is the part of the soil where all of the biological activity happens. It smells quite earthy and the darer the topsoil the more nutrient-rich ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil

Soil acts as an engineering medium, a habitat for soil organisms, a recycling system for nutrients and organic wastes, a regulator of water quality, a modifier of atmospheric composition, and a medium for plant growth, making it a critically important provider of ecosystem services.

www.earthsoils.com/soil-composition

Soil Composition and Crop Quality This chart reflects a tremendous amount of information available for your understanding of the composition of a healthy productive soil environment. It is based on scientific research accumulated over years of observation on productive soil types throughout many growing areas of the country. The approach to obtaining this insight on …

www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/a_comp.aspx

Soil composition is an important aspect of nutrient management. While soil minerals and organic matter hold and store nutrients, soil water is what readily provides nutrients for plant uptake. Soil air, too, plays an integral role since many of the microorganisms that live in the soil need air to undergo the biological processes that release ...

www.dummies.com/home-garden/gardening/how-to-assess-soil-composition

The health of garden plants depends on the soil’s composition — the proper balance of mineral pieces, organic matter, air, and water. Knowing the type of soil you have can help you choose techniques to enhance its good qualities. The best garden soil should have proper balance of minerals, water, organic matter, and air. The […]

www.soils.org/.../green-infrastructure/building-green-infrastructure/topsoil

Depending on its chemical composition, topsoil may provide nutrients and assist with binding metals, as well as hold water for use by plants, but not to the same degree as the organic matter in compost. In addition, topsoil is not teeming with microbes to the same extent as organic matter, and thus does little to aggregate soil and remove ...

www.reference.com/science/soil-composition-82e825fd9cae95b

What Is Soil Composition? Soil composition refers the type and quantity of substances found in soils. Soil substances occur in four basic components: minerals, organic matter, water and air. The combination of these substances varies among soils but generally consists primarily of minerals followed by equal parts water and air and a small ...

growingspaces.com/soil-composition

Soil composition is the most important, yet most misunderstood factor for many home growers. The health of your soil is crucial to the vitality of the plants you choose to grow in your greenhouse. But what is makes up soil composition? How does it differ from dirt? Below you will find the answers to these questions, as well as the components ...