An RNA strand can undergo significant intramolecular base pairing to take on a three-dimensional structure. There are three main types of RNA, all involved in protein synthesis. Messenger RNA ( mRNA ) serves as the intermediary between DNA and the synthesis of protein products during translation.
The structure of RNA is a single-stranded molecule made up of basic units called nucleotides that contain a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar and a phosphate group. Although there is only one strand of RNA, as opposed to the two stranded double helix of DNA, it does not always follow a linear pattern.
An important structural component of RNA that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar. The presence of this functional group causes the helix to mostly take the A-form geometry, although in single strand dinucleotide contexts, ...
In certain instances, the RNA component of a ribonucleoprotein (RNA in association with protein) is catalytically active. Such RNAs are termed as ribozymes. At least five distinct species of RNA that act as catalysts have been identified.
A large body of structural work conducted over the past ten years has elucidated mechanistic details related to 3' to 5' processing and decay of RNA substrates by the RNA exosome.
Primary structure consists of a linear sequence of nucleotides that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds.It is this linear sequence of nucleotides that make up the Primary structure of DNA or RNA.Nucleotides consist of 3 components:
The components of RNA are somewhat similar to DNA with three major differences. the pyrimidine base uracil replaces thymine and ribose sugar replaces deoxyribose. RNA mostly forms single stranded structure.
Ribose, the sugar of RNA, has a ring structure arranged as five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. Each carbon binds to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group, which is a molecule of one oxygen and one hydrogen atom.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is found in a cell's cytoplasm and is closely related to mRNA as its helper. tRNA literally transfers amino acids, the core components of proteins, to the mRNA in a ribosome. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is found in a cell's cytoplasm.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of cell organelles called ribosomes. A ribosome consists of ribosomal proteins and rRNA. A ribosome consists of ribosomal proteins and rRNA. Ribosomes are typically composed of two subunits: a large subunit and a small subunit.