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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_pass_effect

The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.

www.answers.com/Q/What_is_second_pass_hepatic_metabolism

First pass metabolism is when some substance (usually a drug) is altered before it can reach its site of action. Often, drugs that are taken orally are brought by the digestive system into the ...

quizlet.com/71364324/metabolism-flash-cards

Second-pass metabolism is where the drug comes back to the liver from the circulation. Metabolism Overview picture. Liver is the main organ but there are other places it can metabolize Different people metabolize differently due to genetic variability. What are the Pre-systemic (1st pass) metabolism sites ...

www.sciencedirect.com/.../first-pass-effect

A first-pass effect is defined as a low systemic availability of the drug as a result of significant metabolism. Although a first-pass effect can occur in a variety of tissues, including the intestines Doherty and Pang (1997) and uterus De Ziegler et al (1997), it is most often observed with the liver.

www.researchgate.net/post/Can_someone_provide_a_simple_explanation_for_the_1st...

Can someone provide a simple explanation for the 1st pass effect? ... First-pass metabolism refers to the 'first passage' of drug through the liver, after absorption from the GI tract, as ...

www.nottingham.ac.uk/nmp/sonet/rlos/bioproc/metabolism/01.html

Understanding First Pass Metabolism : Drug Absorption. The drug is absorbed from the GI tract and passes via the portal vein into the liver where some drugs are metabolised. Sometimes the result of first pass metabolism means that only a proportion of the drug reaches the circulation. First pass metabolism can occur in the gut and the liver.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6362950

First-pass elimination takes place when a drug is metabolised between its site of administration and the site of sampling for measurement of drug concentration. Clinically, first-pass metabolism is important when the fraction of the dose administered that escapes metabolism is small and variable ...

medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/first-pass+effect

first-pass metabolism the intestinal and hepatic degradation or alteration of a drug or substance taken by mouth, after absorption, removing some of the active substance from the blood before it enters the general circulation. Synonym(s): first-pass effect first-pass me·tab·o·lism , first-pass effect (fĭrst-pas mĕ-tab'ŏ-lizm, e-fekt') The ...

sepia.unil.ch/pharmacology/index.php?id=55

Drug metabolism usually occurs in the liver, but occasionally can take place in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, kidneys, skin or plasma. Two phases in metabolism are classically recognized: Phase I: Transformation of drug into a more polar metabolite by introducing or unmasking a functional group (e.g. oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis).

step1.medbullets.com/pharmacology/107006/phase-i-vs-phase-ii-metabolism

Phase I metabolism . oxidation (via cytochrome P450), reduction, and hydrolysis reactions ; phase I reactions convert a parent drug to more polar (water soluble) active metabolites by unmasking or inserting a polar functional group (-OH, -SH, -NH2) geriatric patients have decreased phase I metabolism