United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.Each state is apportioned a number of seats which approximately corresponds to its share of the aggregate population of the 50 states.
The Constitutional basis for conducting the decennial census is to reapportion the U.S. House of Representatives. Apportionment is the process of dividing the 435 memberships, or seats, in the U.S. House of Representatives among the 50 states.
Though the Fourteenth Amendment contains the Equal Protection Clause and bars the states from "abridging" voting rights, the text does not address apportionment. Instead, most state legislatures imitated the Congress, in which the lower house is apportioned by population, while the upper house is apportioned by some other criterion.
Based on the 1787 national population, each House Member in the First Federal Congress (1789–1791) represented 30,000 citizens. As U.S. territory expanded and the population grew, the Membership of House of Representatives increased and individual Members’ constituencies were enlarged. Apportionment by State (PDF)
Reapportionment is the official redistribution of representation in a ruling body, such as Congress. By Federal law, there are 435 total congressional districts that make up the House of Representatives.
From 1790 to the present, an apportionment has been made on the basis of each census, except following the census of 1920. Calculation of a Congressional apportionment requires three factors--the apportionment population of each state, the number of representatives to be allocated among the states, and a method to use for the calculation.
The term congressional reapportionment is different from redistricting, which refers to the division of congressional districts after every state has been apportioned. Both redistricting and reapportionment impact the local state directly. Reapportionment also affects the number of electors every state receives for presidential elections.
re·ap·por·tion·ment (rē′ə-pôr′shən-mənt) n. 1. The act of reapportioning or the state of being reapportioned. 2. Redistribution of representation in a legislative body, especially the periodic reallotment of US congressional seats according to changes in the census figures as required by the Constitution. reapportionment ...
2020 Congressional Reapportionment: An Update Posted on December 21, 2017 by Rebecca Tippett Every decade, following the decennial Census, the 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives are allocated to the 50 states based on their population.
No; Congress allows each State to decide whether to elect its members by a general ticket system (at-large) or on a single-member district basis Single-member district votes in each district elect one of the State's representatives from among a field of candidates running for a seat in the House from that district