https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/photosynthesis-in-plants/photorespiration--c3-c4-cam-plants/a/c3-c4-and-cam-plants-agriculture

How the C4 and CAM pathways help minimize photorespiration. ... It uses up fixed carbon, wastes energy, and tends to happens when plants close their stomata ... A "normal" plant—one that doesn't have photosynthetic adaptations to reduce ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C4_carbon_fixation

About 8,100 plant species use C4 carbon fixation, which ... species use the C4 photosynthetic pathway most.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_C4_plants

C4 plants use the C4 carbon fixation pathway to increase their photosynthetic efficiency by reducing or suppressing photorespiration, which mainly occurs under ...

http://bio1510.biology.gatech.edu/module-3-molecules-membranes-and-metabolism/10-c4-plants/

Oct 28, 2012 ... Rubisco evolved even before oxygenic photosynthesis, when there was no ... C4 plants use this 4-carbon compound to effectively “concentrate” ...

http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/content/filerepository/CMP/00/001/066/Rubisco%20and%20C4%20plants.pdf?v=1353967268963

pathway of photosynthesis evolved when oxygen concentrations in the atmosphere were very low, ... C4 plants use a variety of pathways to raise carbon dioxide.

https://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/food_supply/student_materials/1167

Jan 11, 2018 ... A unique leaf anatomy and biochemistry enables C4 plants to bind ... significantly improving the plant's photosynthetic and water use efficiency.

https://www.britannica.com/science/photosynthesis/Carbon-fixation-in-C4-plants

Photosynthesis - Carbon fixation in C4 plants: Certain plants—including the ... Under these conditions, photorespiration is likely to occur in plants that use ...

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213005071

Jul 22, 2013 ... Only about 3% of flowering plant species use the C4 pathway, but this relative handful of species account for 23% of the carbon fixed (primary ...

http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/155/1/56

This leads to a better nitrogen-use efficiency of C4 compared to C3 plants, since the rate of photosynthesis per unit nitrogen in the leaf is increased (Oaks, 1994).

https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/8%3A_Photosynthesis/8.3%3A_The_Light-Independent_Reactions_of_Photosynthesis/8.3A%3A_CAM_and_C4_Photosynthesis

Cross section of a C4 plant, specifically of a maize leaf. Drawing ... Over 90% of plants use C3 carbon fixation, ...