Adaptations of plants living in estuaries include the ability to survive in water of varying salinity levels, cells that store oxygen for use underwater, and the ability to reproduce by releasing new plants ready to germ... More »

A large variety of animals live in estuaries, including different species of fish and birds. Estuaries are defined as the mouth of the river where the river's tide meets a stream. More »

The environments created by estuaries are extremely productive and generate more organic material than equally sized grassland, forest or agricultural areas. Unique communities of animals and plants are supported by the ... More »

The lower epidermis contains stomata cells that help prevent water loss and regulate the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, enabling plants to survive. Other cells in the lower epidermis include a waxy ... More »

Totipotency refers to a developmental flexibility within plant cells that distinguish them from most animal cells, in that many somatic plant cells can regenerate into entire plants. Two researchers in the 1950s were the... More »

Cellulose makes up most of the tough cell walls surrounding plant cells and enables plants to stand upright, according to Education Portal. It is the major component of plants that makes the branches, stems and leaves ve... More »

Human activity impacts the carbon cycle by introducing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere: carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere, changes temperatures and alters the salinity levels of oceans, disturbing the ... More »