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The pelagic zone occupies 1,330 million km 3 (320 million mi 3) with a mean depth of 3.68 km (2.29 mi) and maximum depth of 11 km (6.8 mi). Fish that live in the pelagic zone are called pelagic fish. Pelagic life decreases with increasing depth.


The Pelagic Fisheries and Ecosystems Program is responsible for monitoring Coastal Pelagic and Highly Migratory fisheries that land in California ports. Program staff collect and analyze biological samples from monitored fisheries, compile and analyze State logbook records, fishery survey data, and landing receipt information.


Ecosystem model consists of pelagic and benthic ecosystem submodels. The basic concept of pelagic and benthic ecosystem submodels can be found in Baretta and Ruardij (1988), Kremer and Nixon (1978), and others.In the example of the ecosystem model (Figure 14.2) (Kitazawa et al., 2003), the boxes represent the state variables, which are solved by differential equations in terms of time, and the ...


Pelagic zone, ecological realm that includes the entire ocean water column. Of all the inhabited Earth environments, the pelagic zone has the largest volume, 1,370,000,000 cubic kilometres (330,000,000 cubic miles), and the greatest vertical range, 11,000 metres (36,000 feet).Pelagic life is found throughout the water column, although the numbers of individuals and species decrease with ...


The Pelagic Ecosystem Function (PEF) apprenticeship gives you the unique opportunity to do independent scientific research. This is real science that contributes to our understanding of the workings and conservation needs of the San Juan Islands marine environment. Now in our 15th year, we are FHL’s most successful research apprenticeship.


pelagic ecosystems overview. a humpback whale forces krill to the surface giving a flock of gulls access to deep water prey. understanding the complex interactions between these predators and their prey is critical to interpreting trends in whale and marine bird populations. (photo credit john moran)


In addition to providing many benefits to the natural world, marine ecosystems also provide social, economic, and biological ecosystem services to humans. Pelagic marine systems regulate the global climate, contribute to the water cycle, maintain biodiversity, provide food and energy resources, and create opportunities for recreation and tourism. ...


The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWHOS) was primarily a deep-pelagic event. Variable amounts of discharged hydrocarbons and dispersant reached the surface and/or seafloor, whereas 100% occurred within the water column, with a massive hydrocarbon plume observed at ~1100 m. The DWHOS highlighted the paucity of baseline data for deep-ocean ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and elsewhere.


Pelagic definition, of or relating to the open seas or oceans. See more.


The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council developed five fishery ecosystem plans for fisheries in the Pacific Islands region, and has amended them, as necessary. These plans incorporated and replaced five fishery management plans. The original plans are available from the council. In addition to the plans and amendments, the implementing regulations here are subject to change.