The observer effect in psychology, also known as the Hawthorne effect, refers to subjects altering their behavior when they are aware that an observer is present. This applies when a psychologist observes his patients or... More »

In science, controls are intended to reduce or eliminate false-positive results that arise from confirmation bias or the placebo effect. According to psychology expert Kendra Cherry for About.com, controls are especially... More »

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Functional psychology is a branch of psychology that developed in the late 19th century that focused on both the function of consciousness and how consciousness influences behavior. Functional psychology sprang up in opp... More »

In the realm of psychology, there are four primary reasons why a social creature such as a human exhibits unsociable, or mean, behavior: positive distinction, downward comparisons, classical projection and ego threat. Wh... More »

Some types of behavior outlined in psychology include appropriate behavior, inappropriate behavior, and maladaptive or emotional behavior. Other types of behavior may exist in excess or in deficit. Behavior can also be c... More »

Negative reinforcement is a concept in psychology's theory of operant conditioning that suggests a behavior is strengthened when a negative outcome is stopped, removed, avoided or prevented. Negative reinforcement is an ... More »

The study of human social behavior is called sociology, while the study of the individual human mind and behavior is called psychology. Sociology basically deals with human relationships and institutions while psychology... More »