As shown on the NIH Genetics Home Reference site, when DNA molecules are represented as ladders, the rungs represent the base pairs of the DNA. The bases in DNA are often represented as G, A, T and C, which stand for gua... More »

The NIH Genetics Home Reference Handbook explains that mutations are passed to offspring if these mutations are present in germ line (sperm or egg) cells. Germ line mutations can occur early in the parent's development s... More »

The rungs of the DNA ladder are made of complementary nitrogenous base pairs. DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. The nitrogenous bases are divided into the purines and ... More »

The base pairing rules for DNA are governed by the complementary base pairs: adenine (A) with thymine (T) in an A-T pairing and cytosine (C) with guanine (G) in a C-G pairing. Conversely, thymine only binds with adenine ... More »

In terms of the human genome, the chromosome 7 pair represents more than 5 percent of all DNA and is estimated to contain up to 1,000 genes that are responsible for the production of proteins with cells, according to Gen... More »

The rungs of the DNA ladder consist of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. Each rung of the ladder is composed of two of the nitrogenous bases held together by hydrogen bonds. More »

The steps, or rungs, of the DNA ladder are made up of two bases joined together with either two or three weak hydrogen bonds. The rails of the ladder are made up of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules. The rungs ar... More »