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The final, massive eruption of Mount Pinatubo began at 13:42 PST on June 15. It caused numerous major earthquakes due to the collapse of the summit and the creation of a caldera 2.5 km (1.6 mi) in diameter, reducing the peak from 1,745 m (5,725 ft) to 1,485 m (4,872 ft).


Mount Pinatubo is located in the Philippines ; After two months of seismic activity, Mount Pinatubo had a massive eruption on June 15, 1991. The eruption spread an ash cloud over most of the earth ...


Overall, the cooling effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption were greater than those of the El Niño that was taking place at the time or of the greenhouse gas warming of the planet. Remarkable sunrises and sunsets were visible around the globe in the years following the Mount Pinatubo eruption.


The second-largest volcanic eruption of this century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. The eruption produced high-speed avalanches of hot ash and gas, giant mudflows, and a cloud of volcanic ash hundreds of miles across.


Global Effects of Mount Pinatubo ... The Pinatubo eruption increased aerosol optical depth in the stratosphere by a factor of 10 to 100 times normal levels measured prior to the eruption. (“Aerosol optical depth” is a measure of how much light airborne particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere.) Consequently, over the ...


The effects of the eruption were not limited to the area around Pinatubo. The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo affected weather around the globe. Huge quantities of particles from Pinatubo's tall ash cloud injected into the global wind system in the stratosphere. These particles affected the weather in two ways.


The volcano’s eruption also had significant global environmental effects. Mount Pinatubo ejected millions of tons of sulfur dioxide gas into the atmosphere, forming a cloud over the earth and decreasing average worldwide temperatures by almost 1 degree Fahrenheit for several years after the eruption.


The June 29, 1991 eruption column from Mount Pinatubo with Marella River Valley. Aerial view to north of pyroclastic-flow deposits in Marella River valley (in foreground) and tributaries of Balin Buquero River (in distance) with ash plume rising from Pinatubo’s caldera.


When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines June 15, 1991, an estimated 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide and ash particles blasted more than 12 miles (20 km) high into the atmosphere. The eruption caused widespread destruction and loss of human life. Gases and solids injected into the stratosphere circled the globe for three weeks.


The Atmospheric Impact of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo Eruption Stephen Self, 1 Jing-Xia Zhao, 2 Rick E. Holasek, 1 3 Ronnie C. Torres, 1 4 and Alan J. King 1. 1 Hawaii Center for Volcanology and Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.