Metabolism (biotransformation) Same like metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, lipids, the drug will metabolized by enzymes present in the body. The conversion of lipid soluble substances or drug in to water soluble compound by enzymatic reaction is called as bio-transformation. It involves alteration of drug molecule. Table of Content Metabolising Enzymes Chemical Phases The
Metabolism of drugs is a complex and major process within the body, occurring primarily in the liver. The aim of metabolism is to make the drug more polar to enable excretion via the kidneys. The basic understanding of drug metabolism is paramount to ensure drug optimisation, maximum therapeutic benefits and a reduction in adverse effects.
Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms. The liver’s primary mechanism for metabolizing drugs is via a specific group of cytochrome P-450 enzymes.
Drug Metabolism: Termination of drug effect, also termed as drug elimination involves two processes; metabolism, mainly in the liver and kidneys and excretion of unchanged drug and /or its metabolites by the kidneys, gut, lungs, sweat glands, breasts and salivary glands. Some drugs are excreted from the body unchanged, but the majority of them ...
Metabolism. Describe the mechanisms of drug clearance and metabolism. Removal of drug from the body requires either: Metabolism of active drug to an inactive substance Typically by the liver, but other organs (kidney, lungs) also metabolise some substances. Excretion of active drug Often by the kidneys, but may also be in bile, or exhaled.
Drug metabolism. There were no abnormal changes in liver function indexes in the elderly, but the activity of drug metabolism enzyme in the liver is decreased so that the half-life of the drug is prolonged. Also, the age associated reduction of parenchymal cells in the liver and a reduction of liver blood flow affects the ability of the liver ...
CYP2C19-related poor drug metabolism is a condition in which the body is unable to properly process certain types of medications such as clopidogrel, mephenytoin, omeprazole, and/or proguanil.As a result, these medications are less effective in affected people who are treated with them. The condition is caused by changes (mutations) in the CYP2C19 gene and is inherited in an autosomal ...
Products that claim to speed up your metabolism are often more hype than help, and some may cause undesirable or even dangerous side effects. Dietary supplement manufacturers aren't required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to prove that their products are safe or effective, so view these products with caution.
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Although many medications are processed through phase I hepatic metabolism, warfarin (Coumadin) is one of the few to demonstrate a difference in dosage requirement based on sex.