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Phase 1 metabolism by CYPs and phase 2 conjugation to a glucuronide is one of the most common drug-metabolism combinations. There are many drugs that alter the normal action of drug metabolizing enzymes. Some drugs induce CYPs. This is typically due to the production of the new protein (drug metabolizing enzyme). When


Drug metabolism is how organisms break down drugs. Developing effective new drugs requires a thorough understanding of how the drugs will act once they are administered to the patient. This learn-at-your-own-pace online course is designed to provide scientists and regulatory professionals with a basic understanding of drug metabolism and its ...


Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes often leads to accelerated metabolism of multiple drugs, not just the inducing drug itself. For example, rifampicin, an antibiotic used in tuberculosis, or phenytoin and phenobarbital, which are used as anti-epileptic agents, all induce accelerated inactivation of each other and of contraceptive agents.


Metabolism of the Medicines. Metabolism is the biotransformation of a drug within the body into other molecular species known as metabolites. While we usually think of metabolism of a drug as a de-activation of it, some cancer drugs actually require some metabolic change inside the body before they become active against malignant cells.


In recent years, besides the classic designer drugs of the amphetamine type, a series of new drug classes appeared on the illicit drugs market. The chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, metabolism, and toxicokinetics is discussed of 2,5-dimethoxy amphetamines, 2,5-dimethoxy phenethylamines, beta-keto …


Metabolism. Describe the mechanisms of drug clearance and metabolism. Removal of drug from the body requires either: Metabolism of active drug to an inactive substance Typically by the liver, but other organs (kidney, lungs) also metabolise some substances. Excretion of active drug Often by the kidneys, but may also be in bile, or exhaled.


Metabolism of drugs occurs in 2 phases. In the phase 1 reaction, the drug is made polar by oxidation or hydroxylation. All drugs may not undergo this step, and some may directly undergo the phase 2 reaction. The cytochrome P-450 enzymes catalyze phase 1 reactions. Most of these intermediate products are transient and highly reactive.


Drug Metabolism: Termination of drug effect, also termed as drug elimination involves two processes; metabolism, mainly in the liver and kidneys and excretion of unchanged drug and /or its metabolites by the kidneys, gut, lungs, sweat glands, breasts and salivary glands. Some drugs are excreted from the body unchanged, but the majority of them ...


Only recently have detailed investigations into drug metabolism in the kidney been carried out. These studies have shown that the kidney is meta-bolically very active in effecting the biotransformation of a variety of chemicals and drugs and, in some cases, surpasses the liver.


Note: This policy addresses panel testing and Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genotyping for drug metabolism status. Drug efficacy and toxicity vary substantially across individuals. Because drugs and doses are typically adjusted, if needed, by trial and error, clinical consequences may include a prolonged time to optimal therapy.