The civilizations of the Mesopotamian area, which include the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians and Akkadians, had numerous achievements, such as a form of written communication with pictures, mathematics, trade and astr... More »

The characteristics of Mesopotamian civilization included the city-state, irrigation, polytheistic religion, three distinct social classes and the development of the solar calendar. Mesopotamian civilization is thought t... More »

Early Mesopotamians wore primarily wool and goat hair cloth that was either felted or woven into a coarse cloth, with linen cloth for finer garments. Women initially wore long wrapped shawls and later sewn dresses or rob... More »

The contributions of the Gupta Empire include the iron pillar, an educational system, a judicial system, an administrative system, mathematics and astronomy. The Gupta Empire made a great impact in social, cultural and p... More »

Besides the creation of one of the world's largest empires and the largest empire ever on the Indian subcontinent, the achievements accomplished during the Mauryan Empire included a widespread bureaucracy and civil servi... More »

The Babylonians invented astronomy and an advanced form of mathematics, built grand cities and canals, and are credited with codifying laws. The Hanging Gardens, which Nebuchadnezzar built, remains one of the Seven Wonde... More »

Like many ancient people, the Sumerians recorded the position of the stars and planets as part of their practice of astrology. They believed earthly events could be predicted by close examination of the heavens. More »