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The liver is a major site for drug metabolism. The goal of metabolism is to produce metabolites that are polar or charged, and can be eliminated by the kidney. Lipid-soluble agents are metabolized by the liver using two general sets of reactions, called phase I and phase II. + +


Chronic kidney disease affects renal drug elimination and other pharmacokinetic processes involved in drug disposition (e.g., absorption, drug distribution, nonrenal clearance [metabolism]).


CRF will lead to a decrease in the ability of the kidney to metabolize drugs, but the repercussions on the systemic clearance of drugs is still poorly defined, except for selected xenobiotics. In conclusion, reduced drug metabolism should be taken into account when evaluating the pharmacokinetics of drugs in patients with CRF.


Metabolism of numerous medications occurs in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, whereas excretion of drugs and metabolites may be either extrarenal or by the kidneys [1,2,3 ,4–6].Focusing of renal excretion, the two major pathways mediate drug clearance – glomerular filtration or tubular secretion (or some combination of the two pathways).


The majority of these drugs, or their metabolites, are excreted via the kidney. While some substances may be directly nephrotoxic, a number of other mechanisms are also involved. To achieve their recreational effects these drugs must cross the blood‐brain barrier and many are highly lipid‐soluble; this results in high volumes of ...


Drug metabolism is affected by age, sex, genetics, intestinal flora, enterohepatic circulation and nutritional status. Excretion of the Medicines. Excretion occurs mainly either via the kidneys or the bile. Kidney health and capacity is important for renally excreted drugs.


The kidneys’ job is to filter the blood pumped throughout the body in order to create urine 3.Urine is comprised of excess fluid and waste products and, once formed in the kidneys, it travels to the bladder, where it is stored in anticipation of its periodic excretion 3.Working in concert with each other, these two organs help to stabilize electrolytes and prevent waste and fluid buildup in ...


Patients are exposed to numerous prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Unfortunately, drugs remain a relatively common cause of acute and chronic kidney injury. A combination of factors including the innate nephrotoxicity of drugs, underlying patient characteristics that increase their risk for kidney injury, and the metabolism and pathway of excretion by the kidneys of the various ...


Metabolism. Describe the mechanisms of drug clearance and metabolism. Removal of drug from the body requires either: Metabolism of active drug to an inactive substance Typically by the liver, but other organs (kidney, lungs) also metabolise some substances. Excretion of active drug Often by the kidneys, but may also be in bile, or exhaled.


Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a natural polymer derived from chitosan, exerts several biological activities including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-metabolic syndrome, and drug delivery enhancer. Since COS is vastly distributed to kidney and eliminated in urine, it may have a potential advantage as the therapeutics of kidney diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common genetic ...