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The liver is a major site for drug metabolism. The goal of metabolism is to produce metabolites that are polar or charged, and can be eliminated by the kidney. Lipid-soluble agents are metabolized by the liver using two general sets of reactions, called phase I and phase II. + +


Metabolism of numerous medications occurs in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, whereas excretion of drugs and metabolites may be either extrarenal or by the kidneys [1,2,3 ,4–6].Focusing of renal excretion, the two major pathways mediate drug clearance – glomerular filtration or tubular secretion (or some combination of the two pathways).


Patients are exposed to numerous prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Unfortunately, drugs remain a relatively common cause of acute and chronic kidney injury. A combination of factors including the innate nephrotoxicity of drugs, underlying patient characteristics that increase their risk for kidney injury, and the metabolism and pathway of excretion by the kidneys of the various ...


Drug metabolism is affected by age, sex, genetics, intestinal flora, enterohepatic circulation and nutritional status. Excretion of the Medicines. Excretion occurs mainly either via the kidneys or the bile. Kidney health and capacity is important for renally excreted drugs.


The majority of these drugs, or their metabolites, are excreted via the kidney. While some substances may be directly nephrotoxic, a number of other mechanisms are also involved. To achieve their recreational effects these drugs must cross the blood‐brain barrier and many are highly lipid‐soluble; this results in high volumes of ...


The kidneys’ job is to filter the blood pumped throughout the body in order to create urine 3.Urine is comprised of excess fluid and waste products and, once formed in the kidneys, it travels to the bladder, where it is stored in anticipation of its periodic excretion 3.Working in concert with each other, these two organs help to stabilize electrolytes and prevent waste and fluid buildup in ...


Abstract. Metabolism of drugs is a complex and major process within the body, occurring primarily in the liver. The aim of metabolism is to make the drug more polar to enable excretion via the kidneys.


Chronic kidney disease affects renal drug elimination and other pharmacokinetic processes involved in drug disposition (e.g., absorption, drug distribution, nonrenal clearance [metabolism]).


Drug Response With Advancing Age. Aging, Effects on Drug Metabolism and Drug Response – Many drugs have different therapeutic effects as well as potential adverse drug reactions, depending on a person’s age. The very young and the very old often have limited liver function, which affects the ways in which the liver metabolizes drugs, resulting in lower thresholds for toxicity and ...


Drug-induced kidney stones represent about 1-2% of all kidney stones. About 70% of the drugs involved in crystalluria (the presence of crystals in the urine) can induce formation of kidney stones 2. Medications can interfere with calcium, oxalate and purine metabolism predisposing to the formation of kidney stones.