Tin is an element that is made up of the mineral cassiterite and mined from the crust of the earth. The combination of cassiterite and carbon in a high heat setting forms the type of tin that is used in modern applications.
Today, most tin comes from southeast Asia and countries such as China, Indonesia, Peru, Brazil and Bolivia. Although tin was mined in England and the United States at one point in history, most tin is now found in the southern hemisphere, as there are no remaining substantial deposits in the norther
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The specific heat of tin at 25 degrees Celsius is 0.21 joules per gram per degree Celsius. Since tin is a solid, its specific heat is nearly constant at room temperature and above.
Solder, the outside of cans and cooking utensils, are traditionally made of tin. While tin is still a very common metal in the United States, aluminum is generally used in place of tin because it is less expensive.
Tin has 50 electrons and five energy levels. There are two electrons in the first energy level, eight in the second, eighteen each in the third and fourth, and four valence electrons in the fifth. This element has the symbol Sn from the Latin word "stannum" for tin.
The majority of tin is mined using bucket-line dredging. In this mining method, an endless chain of buckets transports the soil that contains the tin from the excavation site to the area where it is washed and roughly concentrated.
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Tin was discovered prior to the beginning of recorded history, so its exact date of discovery is unknown. Its first known use was at the start of the Bronze Age in approximately 3000 B.C. During this time period, it was used exclusively as a component of bronze and pewter alloys.