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www.futurelearn.com/courses/clinical-pharmacokinetic/1/steps/526688

This is referred to as the first pass effect. First pass through the liver directly from the portal vein, much of the drug is extract. 4:01 Skip to 4 minutes and 1 second When we talk about hepatic extraction, we're representing a decimal fraction from zero to one. It's the fraction extracted during that first pass through the liver.

www.kmc.edu.pk/new/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/First-Pass-Hepatic-Metabolism_H...

The four primary systems that affect the first pass effect of a drug are the enzymes of the gastrointestinal lumen, gut wall enzymes, bacterial enzymes, and hepatic enzymes. In drug design, drug candidates may have good drug likeness but fail on first-pass metabolism, because it is biochemically selective.

medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/First+pass+effect

first-pass metabolism: the intestinal and hepatic degradation or alteration of a drug or substance taken by mouth, after absorption, removing some of the active substance from the blood before it enters the general circulation. Synonym(s): first-pass effect

www.experts123.com/q/what-is-the-hepatic-first-pass-effect.html

The four primary systems that affect the first pass effect of a drug are the enzymes of the gastrointestinal lumen, gut wall enzymes, bacterial enzymes, and hepatic enzymes. If you need to be really sure of the amount of a drug in the system, or need to control the rate of absorption alternative method are preferable to the oral route.

globalresearchonline.net/journalcontents/v21-1/13.pdf

hepatic first-pass effect. The rectum offers a relatively constant environment for drug delivery provided the drug is presented in a well absorbable form. The rate controlled dosage forms resulting in constant steady-state concentration of drugs in plasma selected therapeutic indications.

tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/drug_absorption_distribution

The reduction in total drug delivered to the systemic circulation is referred to as the “ First Pass Effect “ - reflecting the loss of drug via its first pass thru the GI tissues & liver before it reaches the systemic circulation. References: Buxton ILO (2006) ...

pharmawiki.in/ppt-bioavailability-and-first-pass-metabolism

4. first pass metabolism 5. primary systems effect presystemic metabolism 6. hepatic enzymes 7. drug interactions involving drug metabolism 8. evidences of first pass effect 9. liver extraction ratio 10. relationship between absolute bioavailability and liver extraction 11. estimation of reduceds bioavailability due to liver metabolism ...

allnurses.com/hepatic-first-pass-amp-enterohepatic-t182968

First pass metabolism is what occurs when a drug is absorbed from the GI tract. When a drug is taken orally it is absorbed into the portal circulation (the blood vessels of the liver). Many of these drugs are very efficiently metabolized (altered for elimination) as they pass through the portal circulation during this first time .

www.quora.com/Why-do-only-certain-drugs-undergo-first-pass-metabolism-effect

The term, first-pass metabolism, refers to the anatomical fact that drugs that have been taken by mouth are absorbed from the stomach and/or intestine into blood that flows directly into the liver, which is the main organ for metabolism and deacti...

www.pharmacology2000.com/lectures/General/pharmacokinetics/page3.htm

liver may excrete drug into the bile; overall process that contributes to bioavailability reduction is the first-pass lost or elimination; Magnitude of first pass hepatic effect: Extraction ratio (ER)