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onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1982.tb04216.x

The first‐pass effect of aspirin was measured in male Wistar rats by comparing the plasma concentration after intravenous, oral or intraportal administration (10 mg kg −1) of the drug.Approximately 88 and 86% of the dose was excreted mostly as salicylic acid and its conjugated forms, glucuronide and sulphate, in urine within 48 h of i.v. or oral administration, respectively.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_pass_metabolism

The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug, specifically when administered orally, is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.

www.kmc.edu.pk/new/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/First-Pass-Hepatic-Metabolism_H...

The four primary systems that affect the first pass effect of a drug are the enzymes of the gastrointestinal lumen, gut wall enzymes, bacterial enzymes, and hepatic enzymes. In drug design, drug candidates may have good drug likeness but fail on first-pass metabolism, because it is biochemically selective.

experts.umn.edu/en/publications/pharmacokinetics-and-hepatic-firstpass-effect...

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Pharmacokinetics and hepatic first‐pass effect of (−)‐carbovir in the anesthetized rat'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

link.springer.com/10.1007/s40262-020-00931-w

CBD also undergoes extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism. Formulation changes favoring diversion of orally absorbed CBD from the portal to the lymphatic circulation pathway can result in reduced first-pass liver metabolism, enhanced oral bioavailability, and reduced intra- and intersubject variability in systemic exposure.

au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090807082624AA74njC

The four primary systems that affect the first pass effect of a drug are the enzymes of the gastrointestinal lumen, gut wall enzymes, bacterial enzymes, and hepatic enzymes. If you need to be really sure of the amount of a drug in the system, or need to control the rate of absorption alternative method are preferable to the oral route.

globalresearchonline.net/journalcontents/v21-1/13.pdf

hepatic first-pass effect. The rectum offers a relatively constant environment for drug delivery provided the drug is presented in a well absorbable form. The rate controlled dosage forms resulting in constant steady-state concentration of drugs in plasma selected therapeutic indications.

tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/drug_absorption_distribution

The reduction in total drug delivered to the systemic circulation is referred to as the “ First Pass Effect “ - reflecting the loss of drug via its first pass thru the GI tissues & liver before it reaches the systemic circulation. References: Buxton ILO (2006) ...

www.pharmacology2000.com/lectures/General/pharmacokinetics/page3.htm

liver may excrete drug into the bile; overall process that contributes to bioavailability reduction is the first-pass lost or elimination; Magnitude of first pass hepatic effect: Extraction ratio (ER)

socratic.org/questions/does-first-pass-metabolism-affect-intravenous-iv...

No first pass metabolism does not affect medications given by the Intravenous(IV) route. Yes IV medication does completely bypass the liver. First pass metabolism means the metabolism of the drug that takes place before the administered drug reaches the systemic circulation from the place it was administered. This is applicable specially when the drug is given orally.