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Split fingernails, known as onychoschizia or lamellar dystrophy, are caused by frequent wetting and drying of the hands, exposure to cosmetics and chemicals, injury or malnutrition. According to Skinsight, people whose professions require them to wash and dry their hands frequently are at greater ri


Fingernails can split for various reasons. Onychoschizia is a common condition that causes horizontal splits within the nail plate. The condition is sometimes accompanied by onychorrhexis, a condition that causes long-wise splitting or ridging of the nail. Together, these two conditions are called b


People get split fingernails from constantly wetting and drying their nails in low humidity weather and when they expose their nails to harsh chemicals such as detergents and nail polish removers, states the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Though rare, some diseases and vitamin deficien


To repair a split fingernail, clean it, apply nail glue, buff the nail, and clean the surrounding skin with acetone. The required supplies include acetone, cotton swabs, nail glue, an orange stick and cotton balls.


There are several home remedies for split fingernails, most of which are focused on preventing new split nails from forming. The key to treating split fingernails at home is moisturizing and strengthening nails so that they don't suffer further damage.


If the nails are brittle or have splits or jagged edges along with vertical ridges, it may indicate onychorrhexis, notes WebMD. Onychorrhexis often results as a side effect of lichen planus, a skin rash. It can also indicate an underactive thyroid gland or anemia.


Fingernails that split vertically are fairly common, yet typically caused by age as the cells turnover within the nail, explains Mayo Clinic. Nails that are split but also dry and brittle with cracks could be an indication of thyroid disease, according to WebMD.


Remedies for split fingernails include keeping nails clipped, using lotion after washing hands, using mild soaps, wearing gloves when necessary and avoiding the overuse of nail polish remover, notes How Stuff Works. It can take up to six months for split nails to completely heal.


Split fingernails and other nail issues are usually treated by dermatologists. A dermatologist is a doctor specializing in the treatment of skin, hair and nails.


Fingernails are made of multiple layers of a strong material called keratin. Keratin is a protective protein produced by the body. It consists of proteins that form filaments and enzymes.