Incurrent and excurrent siphons are the tubular structures that burrowing bivalve molluscs, such as clams, use to feed, respire, reproduce and expel waste into the water, while the body of the bivalve remains buried bene... More »

Exoskeletons are hard, external structures that support and protect an animal's body. Exoskeletons provide protection from predators but limit the growth of the animal. Many animals enlarge or shed their exoskeletons as ... More »

Grassland animals' adaptations include using various ways to protect themselves from predators and find water when there is little available. Since grasslands get 15-36 inches of rain each year, they are considered dry. More »

The four basic needs of any animal are food, water, shelter from predators and weather, and adequate space in which to find nourishment and attract a mate. This list presupposes the need for oxygen, without which all ani... More »

Mini dredges consist of compact and portable dredges designed for small dredging tasks, such as removing sediment from small lakes, waste water ponds, dam reservoirs and other water bodies where full-size dredging machin... More »

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The abductor muscles and a ligament work to open and close a bivalve. The abductor muscles contract to close the shell, while the ligament forces the shell open. This muscle and ligament activity enables bivalves, such a... More »

For a fossil to form, the remains of an animal need to be covered with sediment relatively quickly after the organism's death. The soft tissues rot away before the sediment hardens around the bones and teeth. Eventually,... More »