view of bear evolution and resulting taxonomy. Rather, it is to summarize for the interest of biologists who work with extant species the large body of knowledge that has grown over the past century but is scattered in journals and papers that many of us rarely encounter. SUBFAMILIES OF URSIDAE Although 2 major contributors to bear taxonomy,
Combined analysis of fourteen nuclear genes refines the Ursidae phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 (1): 73-83. Talbot SL, Shields, GF. 1996. A phylogeny of the bears (ursidae) inferred from complete sequences of three mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5:567-575.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans.Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia.
Evolution. Carnivorans evolved in North America out of members of the family Miacidae (miacids) about 42 million years ago. They soon split into cat-like and dog-like forms (Feliformia and Caniformia). Their molecular phylogeny shows the extant Carnivora are a monophyletic group, the crown group of the Carnivoramorpha.
Diversity. Bears are a small group of mostly large mammals, with 8 species in 5 genera (Ursus, Tremarctos, Melursus, Helarctos, and Ailuropoda).Although Ursidae is not diverse, species in this family are widespread and culturally significant to human populations throughout their range. (Flynn, et al., 2005; Nowak, 1991; Vaughan, et al., 2000) ...
ORDER CARNIVORA FAMILY URSIDAE BEAR FAMILY General features and members of the family. The family Ursidae comprises 8 species of bears in five genera: brown bears, polar bears, American black bears, Asian black bears, sun bears, sloth bears, spectacled bears and the Giant Panda.
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Despite the small number of ursid species, bear phylogeny has long been a focus of study due to their conservation value, as all bear genera have been classified as endangered at either the species or subspecies level. The Ursidae family represents a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation. Previous analyses with a single mitochondrial (mt) gene or a small number of mt genes either ...
A Review of Bear Evolution. Article (PDF Available) ... Ursidae is a young family, evolving from early canids during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, about 20-25 million years ago. The family ...
Phylogenomics and Evolution of the Ursidae Family Ammary Jackson, Keanu Spencer, & Alissya Theis Methods: Fig. 1. A phylogenetic tree produced via molecular phylogenetic analysis of the whole mitochondrial genome of Ursidae species. Adapted from Kumar et al. 2017. Department of Biology Fig. 2. Phylogeny of the ATP6 gene within family Ursidae ...