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Instead of changing metabolism, grapefruit juice can affect proteins in the body known as drug transporters, which help move a drug into our cells for absorption.


Drug Metabolism/Interactions Definition Drug metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and converts medication into active chemical substances. Precautions Drugs can interact with other drugs, foods, and beverages. Interactions can lessen or magnify the desired therapeutic effect of a drug, or may cause unwanted or unexpected side effects ...


MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) is a widely misused psychostimulant drug abused among large segments of the young population. Pharmacologically it displays effects related to amphetamine-type drugs and a set of distinctive effects (closeness to others, facilitation to interpersonal …


Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug by the body. Some drugs are chemically altered by the body (metabolized). The substances that result from metabolism (metabolites) may be inactive, or they may be similar to or different from the original drug in therapeutic activity or toxicity.


This chapter discusses pathways of drug metabolism. The biochemical processes governing drug metabolism largely determine the duration of a drug's action, elimination, and toxicity. Phenobarbital typifies the drugs that are active when administered and then are converted to inactive and more polar metabolites in the liver.


Many drugs affect appetite, food absorption, and tissue metabolism (see table). Some drugs (eg, metoclopramide) increase gastrointestinal motility, decreasing food absorption. Other drugs (eg, opioids, anticholinergics) decrease gastrointestinal motility. Some drugs are better tolerated if taken with food.


Drug Interaction Classification Systems: Significance Rating (A) Criteria Management Rating (B) Criteria: 0: Not listed 0: Not listed: 1: Severity - Major: The effects are potentially life-threatening or capable of causing permanent damage. Documentation: interaction is suspected, probable or established 1


The target drug may need to be substituted or the dose adjusted to account for a potential decrease or increase in metabolism. Information regarding a drug's CYP450 metabolism and its potential ...


Due to first-pass metabolism, no pharmacologic effect is experienced from poppy seed ingestion. If there is a question as to a patient's therapeutic compliance, a serum test request for the specific drug of interest may be useful. The presence of an opiate > LOQ indicates exposure to that opiate within 2 to 3 days prior to specimen collection.


Presence of drugs that compete for binding sites or interact in other ways; Race/ethnicity (this can influence the metabolism of a drug) Smoking; Other variables, such as if the person is on hemodialysis. Drug-Specific Variables That May Affect Half-Life. Drug formulation (ie, modified or controlled release preparations extend half-life)