Every atom is made up of a nucleus surrounded by electrons that orbit the nucleus. Electrons orbit the nucleus because they are attracted to the protons inside of the nucleus while simultaneously repelled by the other el... More »

Quantum numbers describe the pathway, movement and designated orbitals of electrons in atoms. There are a total of four quantum numbers whose values describe the characteristics of the electrons in an atom and help to de... More »

Chemiosmosis is the process by which chemical ions move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a selectively permeable membrane. Chemiosmosis is the process by which ATP, or adenosine t... More »

A typical atom consists of a nucleus that is surrounded by a cloud of electrons at a distance. The nucleus of an atom is usually made up of positively charged protons and neutrons that have no charge of their own. Electr... More »

A nucleus of an atom can be compared to the sun of a solar system because the nucleus, like the sun, is the largest part of an atom and its electrons orbit around it, much like planets in a solar system. Atoms can also g... More »

When heated or exposed to electricity, the electrons in atoms of a given element gain energy and move to a higher energy level or orbit; they do not maintain this position but re-emit the energy as light of a specific wa... More »

The atomic number is the value given to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This value is the same as the charge value of an atom. More »