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Although cattle are often collectively referred to as cows, the word cow specifically refers to females of the cattle species that have given birth to at least one calf. Young female cattle that have not yet given birth to a calf are referred to as heifers.


Adult size for cows can vary significantly due to breed and sex, although large breeds can weigh 1,400 pounds or more. Smaller breeds weigh between 600 and 1,000 pounds. Bulls can grow over 3,000 pounds in rare occasions.


A baby cow is called a calf. Adult male cows are called bulls. Adult female cows are called heifers until they give birth; after they have given birth, they are called cows.


Both cows and bulls of many cattle breeds have horns, including Ayrshires, Jerseys and Herefords. The shapes and lengths of cows' horns vary by breed.


Some breeds of cow that have horned females include the common Jersey breed, Holstein cattle, Highland cattle and Kerry dairy cattle. A complete listing of breeds with horned females would be a listing of every horned breed. In all horned breeds of cow, males and females alike have horns.


The original range of wild cows was northern Africa, Europe and southern Asia. Cows were domesticated between 10,000 and 6,500 years ago by cultures great distances from each other. Typical western cattle are from the older strain, which was most likely first domesticated in Turkey.


Domestic cows are a species called Bos taurus, from the Bovidae family and the Bovinae subfamily. They are common all over the world, in places with suitable areas for grazing. They are large animals, with a weight between 147 and 1363 kilograms, and a height between 49 and 52 inches.


There is evidence suggesting that cows do have feelings. As herd animals, they have extensive social relationships and may experience emotions such as stress, fear and pleasure.


The most popular name for baby girls in 2014 was Emma, followed by Olivia, Sophia, Isabella and Ava, reports the Social Security Administration. Mary is one of the most popular names for female children from 1915 to 2014, appearing in the top-five baby names for 41 out of 100 years.


Cows across the world feed on different varieties of grains, typically corn in North America, while a small percentage eat grasses and forage. There is no such thing as a wild cow, meaning that every cow consumes a regulated diet according to the properties the rancher seeks to give the beef.