The depth of footings is determined by the depth of the frost line. The top of the footing must be poured below the frost line to maintain stability. More »

A concrete slab calculator works by calculating the amount of concrete needed in cubic feet by multiplying together the values in feet for the length, width and depth of the concrete slab. The result is divided by 27 to ... More »

Concrete calculators are available at,, and, as of 2015. These websites provide free software applications that determine an estimated amount of c... More » Home & Garden Home Maintenance Building Materials

To build a raised deck, sink the concrete footings under the frost line, attach the posts to them, and use a ledger board to join the deck and the house. Use 2-by-6 boards and joists to make the frame of the deck, and at... More » Home & Garden Outdoor

When measuring the roughness of a machined surface, RA is the arithmetic average roughness which calculates the average deviation from a mean line, and RZ is is the mean roughness depth, which averages the distance from ... More »

The average depth of the frost line in Iowa is 58 inches. In the northern part of the state, the frost line can be up to 70 inches deep, while in the southern part the line may be less than 40 inches deep. More »

The frost line is the maximum depth at which soil is frozen, or the lower limit of permafrost. The depth of the frost depends on the local climate, the heat transfer properties of the soil, and the adjacent materials and... More »