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Nucleotides are chemical compounds that form the basic structure of nucleic acids like RNA and DNA. The chemical structure of nucleotides is almost the same regardless of whether or not the nucleotide is an RNA or DNA nucleotide. Nucleotides are made out of elements like nitrogen and carbon with a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar component, and a group of phosphates.


A nucleotide is made up of three components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. Carbon residues in the pentose are numbered 1′ through 5′ (the prime distinguishes these residues from those in the base, which are numbered without using a prime notation).


In writing nucleotide sequences for nucleic acids, the convention is to write the nucleotides (usually using the one-letter abbreviations for the bases, shown in Figure 28.1.4) starting with the nucleotide having a free phosphate group, which is known as the 5′ end, and indicate the nucleotides in order.


Nucleotide Structure. Nucleotides link their three components together in the same way every time: with the phosphate on the outside of the chain, the sugar next, and the nitrogen-containing base in the center. Two nucleotides face each other, their structures mirroring so that the phosphate-out and base-in structure is always preserved.


In this, the sugar and the phosphate components would make up the backbone of the double helix in the DNA and the bases will be present in the center. As such, the backbone will be held together by the chemical bonds that are formed between the phosphate component of one nucleotide and the sugar component of the other nucleotide.


This video complements the Chemistry of DNA Learning Pack Music used, with permission: The Boathouse by Harriet Grainger.


A single nucleotide is made up of three components: a nitrogen-containing base, a five-carbon sugar (pentose), and at least one phosphate group With all three joined, a nucleotide is also termed a “nucleoside phosphate”.


A nucleotide is a monomer (repeating unit) that makes up a strand of DNA. Each nucleotide has a nitrogenous base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine) that helps to make up the genetic code. The base is connected to a 5-carbon sugar (sometimes called a pentose sugar), which connects to a phosphate group (phosphorous surrounded by hydrogens).


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Even though nucleotide excision repair mechanism is present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the components of the pathways in both groups shows considerable variations. The prokaryotes shows relatively simple nucleotide excision repair mechanism, where as in eukaryotes, the NER pathway is quite complex with many enzymes.