The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, but differs in three primary ways: . Unlike double-stranded DNA, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in many of its biological roles and consists of much shorter chains of nucleotides. However, a single RNA molecule can, by complementary base pairing, form intrastrand double helixes, as in tRNA.
Functions of RNA in Protein Synthesis. Cells access the information stored in DNA by creating RNA to direct the synthesis of proteins through the process of translation.Proteins within a cell have many functions, including building cellular structures and serving as enzyme catalysts for cellular chemical reactions that give cells their specific characteristics.
A number of other nitrogenous bases have been identified in DNA and RNA, but these occur much less frequently. The phosphoric acid component of each nucleotide is, of course, chemically identical in both nucleic acids.
A key feature that facilitates the involvement of RNA in the expression of genetic information is . the instable chemical nature of RNA. the ability of RNA to be recognized by the protein assembly machinery of the cell. the ability of amino acids to correctly align along the RNA molecule to assemble the desired gene product.
The structure of RNA is a single-stranded molecule made up of basic units called nucleotides that contain a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar and a phosphate group. Although there is only one strand of RNA, as opposed to the two stranded double helix of DNA, it does not always follow a linear pattern.
Clearly, the structures of DNA and RNA are richer and more intricate than was at ﬁrst appreciated. Indeed, there is no one generic structure for DNA and RNA. As we shall see in this chapter, there are in fact vari-ations on common themes of structure that arise from the unique physi-cal, chemical, and topological properties of the ...
RNA has a simpler structure and is needed in order for DNA to function. Also, RNA is found in prokaryotes, which are believed to precede eukaryotes. RNA on its own can act as a catalyst for certain chemical reactions. The real question is why DNA evolved, if RNA existed.
Molecular structure of RNA. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. If you're still having trouble, please check your computer's clock and make sure that today's date is properly set.
Chemical structure of DNA; hydrogen bonds shown as dotted lines DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides. The structure of DNA is dynamic along its length, being capable of coiling into tight loops and other shapes. In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.Both chains are coiled around the same axis, and have the same ...
Today's post crosses over into the realm of biochemistry, with a look at the chemical structure of DNA, and its role in creating proteins in our cells. Of course, it's not just in humans that DNA is found - it's present in the cells of every multicellular life form on Earth. This graphic provides an overview of its common structure across these life forms, and a brief explanation of ho...