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Cervical cancer is typically caused by a sexually-transmitted virus called human papillomavirus, according to WebMD. Abnormal changes among cervical cells can also lead to cervical cancer, but the occurrence is rare.


According to Mayo Clinic, cervical cancer occurs when normal cervical cells transform into cancerous cells that multiply uncontrollably. These cancerous cells can then form tumors and invade other parts of the body. Commonly known as HPV, the sexually transmitted disease human papillomavirus causes


Symptoms of cervical cancer include blood-tinged vaginal discharge, painful intercourse, back discomfort and pelvic pain, explains Healthline. However, symptoms are not usually apparent until after the cancer has spread, so it is important for women to schedule regular pelvic exams and Pap smears to


An infection of the human papilloma virus, or HPV, represents the most prevalent risk factor associated with cervical cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. Other risk factors include smoking, having HIV, birth control usage for more than five years, having three or more children, and hav


Doctors may use several treatment methods for cervical cancer including surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The choice of treatment depends on the stage and type of cervical cancer.


Following an abnormal cervical cancer screening test, most doctors recommend a colposcopy exam with a biopsy or an endocervical scraping, according to the American Cancer Society. These tests determine if cancerous or precancerous cells are present.


The prognosis for cervical cancer varies from a 5 percent survival rate to a 95 percent survival rate after five years, according to Cancer Research UK. The stage at which a doctor diagnoses the cancer is the biggest determining factor.


Cervical disc disease is a degenerative progression that may cause lack of mobility, reports WebMD. Cervical discs allow the body to have free movement. When the space flanked by the vertebrae thins and the nerve roots become pinched, cervical disc disease occurs.


Childbirth and physical trauma to the cervix can cause cervical cysts, also known as nabothian cysts, according to Healthline. Nabothian cysts are filled with naturally occurring mucus of the cervix and form as a result of clogged skin cells. Cervical cysts are normally small bumps and are white in


Cervical neck surgery involves removing and replacing a cervical disc that is causing pain, WebMD states. Surgeons can achieve this with small cuts, and patients have the option of using either an artificial disc or fusing two discs to replace the lost one.