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C 4 carbon fixation or the Hatch–Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants. It is the first step in extracting carbon from carbon dioxide (CO 2) to be able to use it in sugar and other biomolecules. It is one of three known processes for carbon fixation."C 4" refers to the four-carbon molecule that is the first product of this type of carbon fixation.


Based on the first product formed during carbon fixation there are two pathways: the C3 pathway and C4 pathway. The Pathway of Photosynthesis C3 Pathway (Calvin Cycle) The majority of plants produce 3-carbon acid called 3-phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) as a first product during carbon dioxide fixation.


The CAM pathway requires ATP at multiple steps (not shown above), so like C 4 \text {C}_4 C 4 start text, C, end text, start subscript, 4, end subscript photosynthesis, it is not an energetic "freebie." 3 ^3 3 cubed However, plant species that use CAM photosynthesis not only avoid photorespiration, but are also very water-efficient. Their stomata only open at night, when humidity tends t...


This is because C4 photosynthesis is more complex: it has more steps and requires a specialized anatomy. For this reason, unless photorespiration or water loss are significant issues, C3 photosynthesis is more effective. This is why the majority of plants perform C3 photosynthesis.


The energetic cost of forming glucose via C4 Photosynthesis is almost twice that of C3 Photosynthesis but C4 pathway is an advantage in warmer regions to prevent the Photorespiration. CAM Photosynthesis. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Pathway is another plant strategy for efficient photosynthesis by decreasing the photorespiration.


Photosynthesis - Photosynthesis - Carbon fixation in C4 plants: Certain plants—including the important crops sugarcane and corn (maize), as well as other diverse species that are thought to have expanded their geographic ranges into tropical areas—have developed a special mechanism of carbon fixation that largely prevents photorespiration.


C4 plants show C4 and C3 cycles. They show adaptations like dimorphic chloroplast and Kranz anatomy to overcome the loss due to photorespiration. Test on the Chapter : Photosynthesis in Higher ...


The C4 photosynthetic carbon cycle is an elaborated addition to the C3 photosynthetic pathway. It evolved as an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures, and dryness. Therefore, C4 plants dominate grassland floras and biomass production in the warmer climates of the tropical and


The benefit of C4 photosynthesis is that it produces a higher concentration of carbon, making C4 organisms more adept at surviving in habitats with low light and water. CAM Photosynthesis. CAM is an abbreviation of crassulacean acid metabolism. In this type of photosynthesis, organisms absorb sunlight energy during the day then use the energy ...