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Purpose: Reports of fatality related to Clostridium difficile colitis and a sharp increase in prevalence of this infection prompted a study of patients who develop a more aggressive form of this disease. Methods: Over 38 months, 710 patients at our institution developed C. difficile colitis. Twenty-one (3 percent) of these patients either required intensive care unit admission or died as a ...


Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is the most common causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. This spore-forming, obligate anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus is becoming responsible for an increasing number of infections worldwide, both in community and in hospital settings, whose severity can vary widely from an asymptomatic infection to a lethal disease.


C. difficile colitis is caused when the body becomes infected with the bacterium C. difficile. C. difficile bacteria are found all throughout the environment such as: in water, food products, human and animal feces, soil, air, and more. The spores of the bacteria can pass through direct contact, or through the air and can persist in a space for ...


C. difficile–associated diarrhoea (CDAD) generally presents as antibiotic-associated colitis, with diarrhoea, abdominal cramping, fever and elevated white cell count, during or following antibiotic use. Severe disease may manifest as pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon, in which diarrhoea may not occur but the patient presents ...


C. difficile infection is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, from mild or moderate diarrhea to severe disease with pseudomembranous colitis, colonic ileus, toxic megacolon, sepsis, or death.


C difficile is a bacteria (germ) that causes diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis. This bacteria can live in our intestines. There are many, many bacteria in the intestine that live there all the time (some even help us to digest food). Usually, the other bacteria compete


C difficile produces two toxins capable of causing colitis: enterotoxin (toxin A) and cytotoxin (toxin B). Toxin A is more potent. Toxin A is more potent. The toxins trigger neutrophils, causing inflammation of the mucosal lining, cellular necrosis, and increased peristalsis and capillary permeability, which results in diarrhea and colitis.


Perhaps one of the biggest changes in the recommendation is the initial C difficile infection (CDI) treatment. For the first time in almost 3 decades, metronidazole is no longer recommended as first-line therapy in adults. Instead, oral vancomycin (125 mg, 4 times a day) or fidaxomicin (200 mg twice daily) are recommended for 10 days in both ...


Introduction. Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, obligate anaerobic, Gram-positive bacillus and is acquired from the environment or by the fecal-oral route. Toxins A and B are responsible for intestinal disease. C difficile is the most common cause of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea and is a common health care-associated pathogen. Clinical symptoms vary widely, from asymptomatic ...

www.uphs.upenn.edu/bugdrug/antibiotic_manual/C difficile guidelines IDSA2017.pdf

diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children. CDI is defined by the presence of symp-toms (usually diarrhea) and either a stool test positive for C. diffi-cile toxins or detection of toxigenic C. difficile, or colonoscopic or histopathologic findings revealing pseudomembranous colitis. In