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The most popular plastic surgery procedures are breast augmentation, nose reshaping and liposuction, as of 2014, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Other popular cosmetic surgery procedures include eyelid surgery and facelifts.


Sources such as the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, or AOFAS, and the Johns Hopkins Department of Orthopedic Surgery indicate that there are several different factors that can influence a doctor's decision to perform surgery on a broken bone, including healing time and the distance betw


In the United States, surgeons who are certifiedto perform open heart medical procedures can be locatedby using the directories provided by U.S. News and the American College of Surgeons, or ACS. Specialists who perform surgical operations concerning heartand chest conditionsare called cardiac, thor


Surgical treatments for a hole in the heart involve open-heart surgery or a procedure to implant a closure device through cardiac catheterization, according to the American Heart Association. Two types of holes can develop in the heart requiring possible treatment: patent foramen ovale and atrial se


Causes of a painful jaw include temporomandibular joint disorder, soft tissue and joint disorders such as osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, jaw alignment disorder and age-related wear, reports Healthgrades. Other causes include heart attack, oral cancer and dental conditions such as tooth decay,


Causes of jaw pain include certain inflammatory conditions, infections and autoimmune processes, according to Healthgrades. Dental conditions, including tooth abscess, tooth decay, dry socket and impacted tooth, may also cause jaw pain.


Recovery varies depending upon the severity of the condition and specific type of back surgery, but, in general, recovery involves pain control, reduced activity and specific back-strengthening exercise, according to MedlinePlus. In addition, many patients use corsets or braces for back support when


Types of spinal surgery procedures include spinal fusion, laminectomy, laminoplasty, foraminotomy and diskectomy, notes WebMD. People consider spinal surgery when other treatments have failed to treat back pain. Before recommending a surgery, doctors try a combination of medication, spinal injection


Potential causes of jaw pain include grinding teeth, dental problems and temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, disorder, according to Colgate. Grinding the teeth is a leading cause of pain and may occur when the patient feels stress or at night when he sleeps and is unaware of it. Stress reduction exerci


A thyroid surgery begins with the insertion of an endotracheal tube and the administration of anesthesia. An incision is then made into the thyroid, and the final determination of how much should be removed is established, says surgery expert Jennifer Whitlock for About.com.