Silver is the most electrically and thermally conductive metal. Other metals with a high level of electrical conductivity are copper and gold.
Metals are good conductors of electricity because of their atomic structure that allows electric charges to pass through freely. The atomic structure of metals is unique because of the presence of one, two or three valence electrons in the outer orbit of the atoms, and this is true for all metallic
Silver is the best metal conductor, but graphene is the best overall material at conducting electricity. Graphene consists of carbon atoms arranged in extremely thin sheets, and has the lowest electrical resistance of any commonly known material.
Metals are good conductors of electricity because their atoms contain at least one free electron. They are also considered excellent heat conductors, because the metal ions in the lattice are closely packed together, and the delocalized electrons can bring kinetic energy through the lattice.
Although metals are supposed to be good conductors of electricity and heat, metals like mercury, lead, alloys of iron and chromium, titanium and stainless steel are poor conductors when compared to silver, copper and gold. For example, stainless steel 310 has an electrical conductivity of 1.28 x 10E
Of the elemental metals, silver is the best conductor of heat. It has a thermal conductivity of 235, meaning that it is able to transmit that amount of heat energy a single foot per hour per degree Fahrenheit.
Metals conduct electricity well because their electrons can move more freely than those in nonmetals. The structure of a metal atom's electron cloud makes it easy for the atom to gain or lose electrons in chemical reactions. Electrons repel these loose electrons and send them through the metal.
The conducting abilities of water depends on the type of water or the purity of it. Pure water, that does not have any other elements in it is a better insulator of electricity than it is a conductor. The opposite holds true for things like salt water, because of the extra elements in it.
Some plastics can conduct electricity. Materials that insulate against electricity or do not conduct electricity are called dielectrics. While earlier plastics were dielectrics, scientists have developed plastics that can conduct electricity.
Iron is a conductor of electricity. Its electrical resistivity is 9.71 microohm centimeter. In comparison to copper, it is a poorer conductor of electricity. Nevertheless, generally, it is considered a good conductor of electricity.