This is the timeline of antimicrobial (anti-infective) therapy. The years show when a given drug was released onto the pharmaceutical market. This is not a timeline of the development of the antibiotics themselves.
Sir Alexander Fleming, a Scottish biologist, defined new horizons for modern antibiotics with his discoveries of enzyme lysozyme (1921) and the antibiotic substance penicillin (1928). The discovery of penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum perfected the treatment of bacterial infections such as, syphilis, gangrene and tuberculosis.
History of Antibiotics. The management of microbial infections in ancient Egypt, Greece, and China is well-documented. 4 The modern era of antibiotics started with the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928. 4, 13 Since then, antibiotics have transformed modern medicine and saved millions of lives. 2, 5 Antibiotics were first prescribed to treat serious infections in the ...
Scientists from the Institut Pasteur have retrospectively identified early cases of Salmonella resistance to ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is still widely used today. By analyzing the genomes of hundreds of historical samples of Salmonella, they proved that resistance first emerged well before ampicillin was released on the market for human use.
This discovery led to the introduction of antibiotics that greatly reduced the number of deaths from infection. Howard W. Florey, at the University of Oxford working with Ernst B. Chain, Norman G. Heatley and Edward P. Abraham, successfully took penicillin from the laboratory to the clinic as a medical treatment in 1941.
Penicillin is one of the earliest discovered and most widely used antibiotic agents, derived from the Penicillium mold. Antibiotics are natural substances that are released by bacteria and fungi into their environment, as a means of inhibiting other organisms - it is chemical warfare on a microscopic scale.
The spread of resistant bacteria, leading to untreatable infections, is a major public health threat but the pace of antibiotic discovery to combat these pathogens has slowed down.
Needing the new drug immediately for the war front, mass production started quickly. The availability of penicillin during World War II saved many lives that otherwise would have been lost due to bacterial infections in even minor wounds. Penicillin also treated diphtheria, gangrene, pneumonia, syphilis and tuberculosis.
- 1938: Dr.Florey and Dr.Chain started their own research on penicillin - March, 1940: Dr. Chain had developed a more purified form of penicillin. - 17 November 1940: Penicillin is save to use - June , 1941: Dr. Florey and Norman Heatly travel to the United States to help with the mass production of penicillin
Antibiotics - discovery timeline Students use the table to analyse the development of antibiotics and the rise of bacterial resistance to them.