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www.ancient.eu/article/859

Citizenship in the Early Republic. After the collapse of the old monarchy and the foundation of the Republic, the control of Roman government was restricted to a handful of great families - the patricians, a word derived from patres or 'fathers'. The remaining residents/citizens were called plebians, representing the poor as well as many of the city’s wealthy.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_citizenship

Citizenship in ancient Rome (Latin: civitas) was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.. A male Roman citizen enjoyed a wide range of privileges and protections defined in detail by the Roman state. A citizen could, under certain exceptional circumstances, be deprived of his citizenship.

rome.mrdonn.org/citizens.html

In ancient Rome, Rome was the heart of the empire! Unlike the Greek city-states, Rome had a central government. There were two types of people in ancient Rome - citizens and non-citizens.

www.britannica.com/topic/civitas

Civitas, plural Civitates, citizenship in ancient Rome.Roman citizenship was acquired by birth if both parents were Roman citizens (cives), although one of them, usually the mother, might be a peregrinus (“alien”) with connubium (the right to contract a Roman marriage).Otherwise, citizenship could be granted by the people, later by generals and emperors.

erenow.net/ancient/ancient-greece-and-rome-an-encyclopedia-for-students-4...

Citizenship in Ancient Rome. The Romans shared the Greek belief that citizenship involved certain responsibilities and privileges. Citizens in ancient Rome had the right to vote, the right to make legally binding contracts, and the right to enter into a marriage recognized as legal by the state (which established the legitimacy of children and ...

www.nationalgeographic.com/history/magazine/2019/11-12/ancient-roman-citizenship

In ancient Rome, citizenship was the path to power From the Republic to the Empire, civitas—full Roman citizenship—was prized by those who had it and coveted by those who did not. 9 Minute Read

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_citizenship

History of citizenship describes the changing relation between an individual and the state, commonly known as citizenship.Citizenship is generally identified not as an aspect of Eastern civilization but of Western civilization. There is a general view that citizenship in ancient times was a simpler relation than modern forms of citizenship, although this view has been challenged.

www.romae-vitam.com/roman-citizenship.html

Grants of citizenship for soldiers, provincials, freed slaves Starting from 52 AD, non-citizen (peregrini) auxiliaries in the Roman army were granted Roman citizenship after 25 years of service.They received a diploma civitatis which consisted of two bronze plates joined together. The outer side of the first plate certified that the holder had served in the Roman military and had received the ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_people

Over time, Roman citizenship was gradually extended more and more and there was a regular "siphoning" of people from less privileged legal groups to more privileged groups, increasing the total percentage of subjects recognized as Roman citizens (e.g. Romans) though the incorporation of the provinciales and peregrini.