A hydride shift is a rearrangement of atoms in which an unstable carbocation is transformed into a more stable one. Carbocations are ions with positively charged carbon atoms and are often found in organic chemistry. More »

An SN1 reaction is a nucleophilic substitution reaction in organic chemistry. It involves substituting one part of a compound with a nucleophile from another compound and occurs in two steps. More »

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Electrons sometimes absorb energy and shift to an excited state for short periods of time. When they lose the excess energy, the energy is released as a photon. The photon can sometimes be seen as visible light in an emi... More »

The molecular weight of a molecule is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the molecule. The periodic table of the elements lists the atomic weight of each atom based on carbon. The subscripts in the molecul... More »

Electron sharing is the sharing of the outermost electrons between two or more atoms without the complete transfer of electrons to form ions. When atoms share electrons, a covalent bond is formed. More »

A polar molecule is a particle consisting of two or more covalently bonded atoms with an asymmetric distribution of charges. This occurs in molecules that are asymmetric along at least one axis when one side contains ato... More »

The first scientific experiment that indicated the existence of atoms was performed by John Dalton during the 1800s. These early experiments did not yield information regarding the atom's structure. The structure of atom... More »