Torque can be calculated by taking the cross product of two variables. The formula is ? = rF sin ?. The moment arm is denoted as "r" and defined as the distance from the pivoting point to where the force is acting. The f... More »

Gallons per minute, abbreviated as GPM, can be calculated by the formula dividing the amount of flow in gallons by the unit of time in minutes. This value is also known as the fluid flow rate and may be represented by th... More »

While there are several formulas for angular acceleration, the basic equation is the change in angular velocity divided by the change in time. This relationship is shown in the following equation: (Av2 - Av1)/(T2 - T1). More »

The derivative of a cross product is found through the cross product formula Dt(r(t)×q(t))=r?(x)×q(x)+r(x)×q?(x), where r and q are the cross product values. The derivative is found by plugging in the known cross product... More »

Net torque is the sum of all the individual torques acting on an object. Torque measures how much rotation-causing force is acting on an object. If the sum of all the torques is zero, the object is in rotational equilibr... More »

The effect of the wheel lug torque depends on how much the applied torque deviates from the recommended car torque. While overtightened lug nuts cause vehicle vibration during braking, overstretches and weakens the wheel... More »

Running torque defines the amount of torque a component needs in order to keep spinning at a constant angular velocity after it starts spinning. Measuring running torque is important for identifying quality issues with a... More »