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An element's tendency to react is closely related to internal factors such as surface area and particle size. External factors that influence reaction include temperature and pressure. More »

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Increasing the surface area of a substance involved in a chemical reaction exposes more of the material to the reactant, thereby speeding up the reaction process. This is why chemists often use powder, filings and other ... More »

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The difference between alpha and beta decay is that during alpha decay, an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle, which is identical to a helium nucleus with no electrons, while during beta decay, the nucleus ejects an... More »

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An energy level is the measurement of discrete energy a subatomic particle, such as an electron, can absorb. When light or other energy strikes an atom, it can transfer some of that energy to its particles, raising their... More »

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Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of any type of particle or molecule from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, while osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane. Osmo... More »

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The smallest subatomic particle is the quark. Quarks make up larger subatomic particles called hadrons, which include baryons and mesons. Three quarks make up composite particles called baryons, and the combination of a ... More »

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Light is a form of radiation energy and since the early 20th century physicists have tended to agree that light has a dual nature; it displays the characteristics of both wave and particle phenomena. Light is produced th... More »

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