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An element's tendency to react is closely related to internal factors such as surface area and particle size. External factors that influence reaction include temperature and pressure. More »

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Increasing the surface area of a substance involved in a chemical reaction exposes more of the material to the reactant, thereby speeding up the reaction process. This is why chemists often use powder, filings and other ... More »

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Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of any type of particle or molecule from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, while osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane. Osmo... More »

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Light is a form of radiation energy and since the early 20th century physicists have tended to agree that light has a dual nature; it displays the characteristics of both wave and particle phenomena. Light is produced th... More »

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A catalyst speeds up a reaction by increasing the number of successful particle collisions between reactive substances. In a typical reaction, the majority of particles do not have enough energy to react, and thus they s... More »

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The smallest subatomic particle is the quark. Quarks make up larger subatomic particles called hadrons, which include baryons and mesons. Three quarks make up composite particles called baryons, and the combination of a ... More »

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An energy level is the measurement of discrete energy a subatomic particle, such as an electron, can absorb. When light or other energy strikes an atom, it can transfer some of that energy to its particles, raising their... More »

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