Shortening can be used instead of butter, but it may change the texture and flavor of food or baked products. Shortening produces higher, lighter-textured baked goods, while butter produces flatter, crispier products. Th... More »

Butter or margarine are the most common products which can be used as a substitute for shortening in recipes in approximately equal amounts. Other products which can be used include vegetable oil and olive oil, but only ... More »

Generally, olive oil can be used in recipes that call for melted solid shortening. It cannot always replace solid or semi-solid shortening in recipes. Olive oil is itself a liquid form of shortening, a word coined to des... More »

The functions of polysaccharides depend primarily on their form: polysaccharides that take the shape of homopolysaccharides create glucose, which is used to treat shock, while polysaccharides in the form of pectin are ad... More »

Organoleptic testing refers to subjective evaluations of the odor, flavor and texture of food and medicine, according to Frost & Sullivan Market Insight. Applications of organoleptic testing include detecting food borne ... More »

Although the texture may be slightly different depending on what the recipe is, cream cheese works as an ideal substitute for Neufchatel cheese. Spreads and dips may appear to be thinner or slightly watery when using cre... More »

Ranch-flavored chips can be used as a substitute for broken taco shells to add a crunchy texture to soup. Other flavors of chips that may complement the dish are taco, lime, salsa, chipotle, jalapeño or nacho cheese. More »

www.reference.com Food Cooking Substitutions